Date de publication: 2023

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Excessive inflammatory response has been implicated in severe respiratory forms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Trace elements such as zinc, selenium, and copper are known to modulate inflammation and immunity. This study aimed to assess the relationships between antioxidant vitamins and mineral trace elements levels as well as COVID-19 severity in older adults hospitalized. In this observational retrospective cohort study, the levels of zinc, selenium, copper, vitamin A, -carotene, and vitamin E were measured in 94 patients within the first 15 days of hospitalization. The outcomes were in-hospital mortality secondary to COVID-19 or severe COVID-19.
A logistic regression analysis was conducted to test whether the levels of vitamins and minerals were independently associated with severity. In this cohort (average age of 78 years), severe forms (46%) were associated with lower zinc (p = 0.012) and -carotene (p < 0.001) concentrations, and in-hospital mortality (15%) was associated with lower zinc (p = 0.009), selenium (p = 0.014), vitamin A (p = 0.001), and -carotene (p = 0.002) concentrations. In regression analysis, severe forms remained independently associated with lower zinc (aOR 2.13, p = 0.018) concentrations, and death was associated with lower vitamin A (aOR = 0.165, p = 0.021) concentrations. Low plasma concentrations of zinc and vitamin A were associated with poor prognosis in older people hospitalized with COVID-19.